History of Educational Technology

We don’t have any written evidence to prove the origin of the term “educational technology”. Educational Technology can be defined in different ways by different educationists, scientists, and philosophers. Educational technology is a multifaceted, integrated process that includes people, procedure and ideas. In order to implement, evaluate and manage all aspects of human learning, technology from various fields is used.

The five stages have all been used to describe educational technology.

The first stage is educational technology that includes the use aids such as maps, symbols and models. Educational technology was used as a synonym for audiovisual aids.

The second phase of educational technology can be referred to as the ‘electronic révolution’. This refers to the introduction and establishment sophisticated hardware and software. Educational technology has seen a revolution thanks to the advent of many audio-visual tools such as projectors, tape recorders, tape-recorders, radios, televisions, and magic lanterns. The educational technology concept was defined in terms these advanced instruments and equipments that allow for the effective presentation of instructional material.

The third stage is related to the development of mass-media, which in turn led ‘communication révolution’ for instructional purposes. Computer-assisted instructional (CAI) was also popularized during this era.

The fourth stage is educational technology’s individualized process of instruction. A new dimension was added to education technology by the invention of program learning and programmed instruction. Self-instructional materials, teaching machines and self-learning were the foundations of a new system of self learning.

The current concept of educational tech is influenced in part by the concept system engineering. System approach focuses on teaching machines, language laboratories, programming, multimedia technologies and the application of the computer in instruction. It defines educational technology as a systematic method of planning, carrying-out, and evaluating the whole process of teaching and learning, with specific objectives.

Educational technology in the Stone Age (Bolsen Age), the Bronze Age, or the Iron Age
Although there is some uncertainty about the origin of educational technology, it can be traced back as far as the three-age system periodization in human prehistory. These were the Stone Age (Bolsen Age), and the Iron Age.

The Stone Age saw simple technological advancements such as the ignition of fire using rubbing stones, the manufacture of various weapons and utensils made from stones, and clothing practices. A small percentage of Stone Age people invented ocean-worthy outrigger ships to allow them to travel across the Ocean. It was through this technology that they gained their first formal education in knowledge about ocean currents and weather conditions. For agricultural use, the polished stone tools of the Stone Age period (Neolithic Period) were made mostly from hard rock. Underground tunnels were dug, which could be considered the first step in mining technology. They were so powerful that even after iron and bronze appeared, they were still used for clearing trees and establishing crop farming.

Stone Age cultures had no written records. However, archaeological evidences prove their transition from nomadic life into agricultural settlement. The preserved tools of ancient times are found in various museums. Cave paintings from Altamira cave in Spain and other prehistoric art include the Venus in Willendorf, Mother Goddess in Laussel, France, among others. These are just some of the evidences supporting their cultures.

The Neolithic Revolution was a period of rapid development in Stone Age that led to the rise of Bronze Age. It saw the birth of agriculture, animal breeding, and permanent settlements. Bronze Age people created metal smelting for these purposes, with copper, and later bronze, an alloy of tin or copper, being their materials of choice.

Iron utensils proved to be stronger than their bronze counterparts and the Iron Age people developed iron smelting technology. Iron Age in many Eurasian cultures was before the invention of written scripts.

Educational technology during Ancient civilizations
Paul Saettler states that 2004 is the beginning of educational technology. He says it can be traced back as far as when tribal priests organized bodies of knowledge, and ancient cultures invented pictographs (or sign writing) to record and transmit data. One can find an instructional method or set of methods that are intended to promote a particular culture at any stage of human civilization. This was supported by many investigations and evidences. The technology used to instruct individuals and groups to manage an educated society has become more complex with each successive culture. Through the centuries, every significant shift of educational values, goals, or objectives has led to diverse technologies in instruction.

The rise and fall of ancient civilizations brought about the greatest technological and engineering advancements. These discoveries influenced other societies all over the globe to adopt new ways in living and governance.

Indus Valley Civilization is an early Bronze Age civilization that existed in the Indian Subcontinent’s northern region. The Indus River basin, which is part of the Indus River, was the center of the civilization. The region extended up to the Ghaggar Hakra River Valley and Ganges Yamuna Doab.

It is difficult to know for certain the Harappan language. It is presumed that their writing was, at most, a pictographic text. The basic signs of the script appear to have been around 400, with many variations. People usually write their script in the same direction, which is from right to left. The majority of the writing can be found on seals, which were most likely used for trade and official & administration work.

Harappan people knew the measurements of length, mass, weight, and time. They were the pioneers in developing a system that uses uniform weights.

P. N. Rao et.al. performed a study. In 2009, Computer Scientists discovered that Indus script’s structure is similar to spoken words. This support the hypothesis of an Indus script that codes for an unknown language.

According to the Chinese Civilization some of China’s most significant techno-offerings include paper, early seismological detects, matches, ironplow, the multi-tube-seed drill, the suspension Bridge, the wheelbarrow and the parachute. Natural gas as fuel is also available. The blast furnace, propeller, crossbow, South Pointing Chariot, gun powder, and the propeller are just a few examples. Their first step to educational technology was made with the invention and cultivation of paper.

Ancient Egyptian language was, at one time, one of most important and longest-lived languages in the world. Their script included pictures of real things, such as birds, animals, and different tools. These pictures are often called hieroglyph. Their language consisted of more than 500 hieroglyphs that are also known as hieroglyphics. There is evidence of many artistic hieroglyphics, as shown by the discovery and rescue of tombs or stone monuments.